ちょっと退屈な。。歴史の事、agak membosankan karena tentang sejarah he..he..
Before industrialization management applied in military capaigns, in household affairs, in the administration of government, and in the operation of the church. The following are examples of the leader and pioneer of management that affect the development of future management.
Management in Early Civilazations
The Near East
- Started by the Babylonian king Hammurabi (ca. 2123-2071 BCE), which issued a regulation called a code of 282 laws, which contain governed business dealings, personal behavior, interpersonal ralations, punishment, and a host of other societal matters.
The Far East
- Pioneered by the oldest known military treatise is the product of the Chinese general Sun Tzu (ca. 600 B.C.E.). He is an advisor planner war strategy, which brought many victories. He wrote of marshaling the army into subdivisions of establishing gradations of rank among the officers, and of using gongs, flags, and signal fires for communications.
- Confucius (ca. 552-479 B.C.E.) He took his ideas merit system as a basis for selection would in time lead to merit rating (performance appraisal) for promotions.
- Chanakya Kautilya (ca. 332-298 B.C.E.) seorang feared minister to Chandragupta Maurya, the greatest statesman of Hindu India. He founded Indian public administration and contained advice on how to establish and maintain economic, social, and political order.
- From Egyptians we derive the word “supervisor”, it because a professional managerial role at the most ancient term. The Egyptians developed extensive irrigation projects as an adjunct to the annual inundation by Nile, and the engineering feats of pyramid and canals. From process of supervise labor that consisted of both freemen and slaves. One of the best known viziers was the Hebrew Joseph which has the ability as a leader, organizer, coordinator, and decision maker.
Here are some great leaders combined spiritual and secular powers, who have experience and ability in administrative, lead the people, as we know as a management.
- Abraham (ca. 1900 B.C.E.)
- Joseph (ca. 1750 B.C.E.)
- Moses (ca. 1300 B.C.E.)
- David (ca. 1000 B.C.E.)
- Socrates (469-399 B.C.E.) observed that managerial skills were transferable.
- Plato (ca. 428-348 B.C.E.) a pupil of Socrates, had notion on human diversity and how this led to the division of labor would optimize productivity.
- Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.), giving insight into management and organization in his politics, also he rejecting mysticism by developed knowledge of Metaphysics more reasonable.
- Xenophon (ca. 370 B.C.E.) describe the advantages of the division of labor.
- Roman laws became a model for later civilizations and Roman separation of legislative and executive powers provided a model system of check and balances for later constitutional governments.
The Catholic Church
- Christianity faced theological as well as organizational problems, operated independently, each defining its own doctrine and conditions for membership. The outcome was centralized doctrine and authority in Rome and the papacy, and there was a conflict between centralized and decentralized authority.
Feudalism And The Middle Ages
- Following the fall of Rome led to economic, social, and political chaos, ripe for the emergence of the feudal system atau disebut juga period the Dark Ages, because this system tied people to the land, fixed rigid class distinctions, established an age of landed aristocracy that was to endure to the Indutrial Revolution, forced education to a standstill, made poverty anf ignorance the hallmark of the masses, and completely stifled human progress.
The Rivival Of Commerce
- The Crusades stimulated commerce by opening new trade routes and exposing parochial, feudal Europe to wealth of the Middle East. Also emerge interest of in exploration, and new spirit of trade and commerce.
The Cultural Rebirth
- The new wine that was straining the cultural containers was a trinity of forces that would eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution and a new culture for humankind. These three ethics, or standards for cultural conduct, interacted in practice to change cultural values toward people, work, and profits. The outcome of this cultural rebirth was the creation of a new environment that would lead to the need for the formal study of management.
The Protestant Ethic
- During the Middle Ages the Cat holic church dominated life and provided the hope of an afterlife as the only consolation for this one. According to the church, the self-interest of trade diverted people’s thoughts from God to gain, from obedience to initiative, and from humility to activity. The loosening of religious bonds by the spread of general prosperity through the revival of commerce was bound sooner or later to lead to a revolt against the church. John Calvin was inspired by the reformation attempts of Luther and, like Luther, he followed the Augustinian creed of predestination and brought to reformation a somber view of the smallness and weakness of humans. Max weber would answer in the affirmative by stating the case for Protestantism having created the spirit of capitalism,
- Weber began his search for an explanation of the capitalistic spirit by noting the overwhelming number of Protestants among business leaders, entrepreneurs, and highly skilled laborers, and more highlytechnically and commercially trained personnel. To attain self-confidence, people had to engage in intense worldly activity, for that and that alone could dispel religious doubts and give certainty of grace.
- The Calvinist was therefore required to live of good works, not an inconsistent series of wrongs balanced by repentant rights. This new Protestant asceticism, which Weber also characterized as Puritanism, did not condone the pursuit of wealth for its own sake, for wealth would lead to pleasure and to all the temptations of the flesh. Intense activity moved people from a contemplative life to one of continuous physical and mental labor. The creat wealth could not be consumed beyond a person’s basic needs, and thus the surplus was to be reinvested in other ventures or in the improvement of present ones. Protestantism resulted in specific guildenes for the creation of a capitalistic spirit.
A Cricitism Of The Weberian Thesis
- Every thesis generates its antithesis and Weber’s Protestant ethic is no exception. R.H.Tawney reversed Weber’s thesis and argued that capitalism was the cause and justification of Protestantism,not effect. In Tawney’s view, the rise of capitalism was action, molding and in turn being molded bu other significant cultural forces. With two sets of assumptions, two different conclusions could be reached: (1) Weber’s notion that the curch changed and then the spirit of capitalism abounded (2) Tawney’s view that economic motivation was steam pushing on the lid of church authority until the safety valve of a change in dogma.
Modern Support For Weber
- Despite the criticism of Weber’s thesis, there is modern evidence that Protestants hold different values toward work. In The Achieving Society, McCelland began a search for the psychological factors that were generally important for economic development, What was involved in the need for achievement was not so much the need to reach certain goals, such as wealth, status, respect, and so on, but the need to enjoy the satisfactions of success. McCelland was able to draw a relationship empirically between the influence of Protantism and Weber’s spirit of modern capitalism. Lenski summarized the criticism of Weber, evaluated them, and presented the evidence both for and against Weber. By contrast, protestants came to view it as an opportunity for serving God,or,in the Deist version, for building character. The implications of McClelland’s and Lenski’s findings can be far-reaching for contemporary people.
The Liberty Ethic
- Given the postulates of a need for achievement and the sanctions of individual rewards for wordly efforts, the political system must be conductive to individual liberty. These were radical ideas in those times, ideas that threatened the existing order with a profound revolution in the views of the relationship between citizen and state.
Before this facet of the cultural rebirth, political theory called for the domintion of the many by the few and found its best proponents in Nicolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Villainy, an oft chosen path in Machiavelli’s Florence, used methods that would gain power, but not glory; afterwards their crown would always rest uneasily as they awaited the next villain or revolt.
Machiavelli;s basic assumption about the nature of people was indicative of his rationale for the type of leadership he advocated:” Whoever desires to found a state and give it laws, must start with the assumption that all men are bad and ever ready to display their nature, whenever they may find occasion for it. Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651) was a later for a strong central leadership.
- In this history of human liberty,John Locke’s essay Concerning Civil Government (1690) must stand as a great contribution to political theory and an effective instigator of political action. Locke’s work is so broad that it is possible here only to sample his main contributions:first, that people are governed by a natural law of reason and not by the arbitrary rules of tradition nor the whims of a central authorarian figure, and second, that civil society is built on private property. Locke was a puritan in the England of Cromwell. His writing must have affected that of Adam Smith and most certainly established the basis for Rousseau’s writings.
The Market Ethic
- Economic thinking was basically sterile during the Middle Ages,since localized,subsistence-level economies needed no economic theory to explain their workings. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the reemergence of strong national entities began to reshape economic thought. The mercantilists thought only of the state,whereas the philosophy of the enlightenment championed individual rights and viewed all human institutions in terms of the contribution they could make to the happiness of each individual. In the eighteenth century, the Physiocratic school of economic thought emerged to challenge mercantilism. Adam Smith (1723-1790), a Scottish political economist, was not a Physiocrat perse but influenced by that school’s view of a natural harmony in economics. For Adam Smith,the concept of specialization of labor was a pillar of this market mechanism. He cited the example of the pin makers. Smith argued that it was the province of government,through public education, to overcome the debilitating effects of the division of labor.
- The first edition of the Wealth of Nations was published in March 1776 and was sold out in six months;the second edition (1778) contained minor changes; but the third edition (1784) contained substantial revision, among them Smith’s concern for join-stock, that is, limited liability firms.
- During Smith’s time, the largest employeers were textile firms, and these were not capital intensive. Those who managed “other people’s money” incurred less personal risk and would be less vigilant and prudent in their duties. When his writing appeared in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, Smith found a large number of vocal supporters fertile soil for his liberal economics. The market ethic was another element in this trinity of forces that created the cultural environment for the flowering of the industrial system.
source : The History of Management Thought (Daniel A. Wren)