Management’s New Paradigms

Tadinya ga ngeh lho masalah Manajement, tapi akhirnya sedikit demi sedikit mengertilah..tapi harus sabar n banyak-banyak baca, mmh, tentang paradigma baru manajemen ini agak sedikit beda dengan presentasi punya Eri.

エリさんのプレゼンテーション は くらべて 新しい と 昔意 事 です。


A paradigm is a mental map, the way we see the world, your point of view, frame of reference or belief. We get conditioned with what we see and what we know. In other words “We see the world as we are not as it is” Paradigm is also popularly known as Perceptions. Some time our Paradigms are way off the mark and as a result they create limitations.

Assumptions about the reality of the existence of management paradigm that is whether the assumptions that the arrival of subconsciously this can become a reality.

There are seven assumptions about reality management

Dicipline Management;

  1. Management is Business Management
  2. There is or there is must be ONE right organization structure.
  3. There is or there must be ONE right way to manage people.

Practice of Management;

  1. Technologies markets and end uses are given
  2. Management’s scope is legally defined
  3. Management is internally focused
  4. The economy as defined by national boundaries is the “ecology” of enterprise and management.


Until the early 1980s the two assumptions about the management is still used, but this 21st century challenge to remedy formulate new assumptions for the sake of learning and practice is very open.

Management Is Business Management

In general, people always associate management with business management, when in fact it was two different things. Management deals with the behavior of people and human institution, management is the public sector was rechristened “Public Administration” and proclaimed a separate discipline-with its own university department, its own terminology, its own career ladder. Where knowledge management (systematic, Principled) will be applied in business management practices to achieve optimum results.

The ONE Right Organization

Concern with management and its study began with the sudden emergence of large organizations—business, governmental civil service, the large standing army—which was the novelty of late 19th century society, presented “there is-or there must be-one right organization” yang kini telah berkembang menjadi lebih dari satu. There are more than one, and it has become clear that organization is not an absolute, that’s why management needs to learn to look for, to develop, to tes the organization that fits the task. It is a tool for making people productive in working together. As such, a given organization structure fits certain task in certain conditions and at certain times. One hears a great deal today about “the end of hierarchy.” This is blatant nonsense. In any institution there has to be a final authority, that is, a “boss—someone who can make the final decisions and who can expect them to be obeyed. In a situation of common peril—and every institution is likely to encounter it sooner or later—survival of all depends on clear command.

The One Right Way to Manage People

In the basic fundamental assumption that there is or at least should be one and only one right way to manage people, underlies practically every book or paper on the management of people.

Technologies and End User

Technologies and End-Users are fixed and given. Unlike the 19th century technologies no longer run in pararel. They constantly crisscross.

Management’s scope is Legally Defined

The universal assumption that management both in theory and practice deals with legal entity, the individual enterprise.

It is still generally assumed in the discipline of management— and very largely still taken for granted in the practice of management that the domestic economy, as defined by national boundaries, is the ecology of enterprise and management—and of nonbusinesses as much as of businesses.

The inside is Management’s Domain

This assumption explains the otherwise totally incomprehensible distinction between managernent and entrepreneurship. This is two things different dimensions of the same task. An entrepreneur who does not learn how to manage will not last long, a management that does nos learn to innovate will not last long. But entrepreneurial activities start with the outside and are focused on the outside.

Drucker identifies the following new assumptions for the social discipline of management. 

1. Management is NOT only for profit-making businesses. Management is the specific and distinguishing organ of any and all organizations.

2. There is NOT only one right organization. The right organization is the organization that fits the task.

3. There is NOT one right way to manage people. One does not “manage” people. The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of each individual.

4. Technologies and End-Users are NOT fixed and given. Increasingly, neither technology nor end-use is a foundation of management policy. They are limitations. The foundations have to be customer values and customer decisions on the distribution of their disposable income. It is with those that management policy and management strategy increasingly will have to start.

5. Management’s scope is NOT only legally defined. The new assumption on which management, both as a discipline and as a practice, will increasingly have to base itself is that the scope of management is not legal. It has to be operational. It has to embrace the entire process. It has to be focused on results and performance across the entire economic chain.

6. Management’s scope is NOT only politically defined. National boundaries are important primarily as restraints. The practice of management – and by no means for business only – will increasingly have to be defined operationally rather than politically.

7. The Inside is NOT the only Management domain. The results of any institution exist ONLY on the outside. Management exits for the sake of the institution’s results. It has to start with the intended results and organize the resources of the institution to attain these results. It is the organ that renders the institution, whether business, church, university, hospital or a battered woman’s shelter, capable of producing results outside of itself.

8. Management’s concern and management’s responsibility are everything that affects the performance of the institution and its results – whether inside or outside, whether under the institution’s control or totally beyond it.



–          Management Challenges for the 21st Century
            by Peter F. Drucker – A Review


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